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Research Results

One of the main goals of the Recognition and Prevention (RAP) Program is to increase scientific knowledge about the biological mechanisms that cause mental illness. We have done this through our innovative research programs that are funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. The RAP Program has a successful track record of developing grant proposals, executing high quality research, and publishing research results. As such, the RAP Program has had, and continues to have, a significant impact on the high-risk field. Recent collaborations between the RAP Program and other prominent research centers have greatly expanded the scope of our research to include several  cutting-edge biological procedures. These research efforts offer hope that the underpinnings of mental illness can be detected through further research and that this knowledge will lead to effective targeted interventions for patients.

We greatly appreciate the time and effort devoted to the projects by research participants and families. Without them, this work would not be possible.


 

RAP Program Neurodevelopmental Model

Neurodevelopmental Model

 

RAP Program Neurodevelopmental Model

Research in the RAP Program is based on a neurodevelopmental framework that is depicted in the above model. In this model, developed by Dr. Cornblatt in 2003, the process begins with an early insult, or insults, that affect the developing brain, often before birth. These insults result in brain abnormalities that alter the structure, function, and chemical components in the brain. These abnormal changes cause a biological vulnerability that we think is related to disability later in life. This disability can be characterized by cognitive problems, changes in mood, and problems in social and academic/work functioning. In some individuals with this vulnerability, a second genetic and/or environmental influence, often occurring in the late teens or early 20's, leads to the further development of symptoms that appear to be early warning signs of psychosis (See RAP eligibility). RAP research efforts target several areas of this model including looking at the brain through neuroimaging and EEG (see Research Procedures) and taking blood samples for a study of genetics. The research also provides a careful assessment of symptoms and functioning so that our treatment can target the appropriate areas.

 

Select Research Publications

 

Auther A.M., Cadenhead K.S., Carrión R.E., Addington J., Bearden C.E., Cannon T.D., McGlashan T.H.,
Perkins D.O., Seidman L., Tsuang M., Walker E.F., Woods,  S.W., Cornblatt B.A., 2015. Alcohol confounds relationship between cannabis misuse and psychosis conversion in a high-risk sample.  Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. [Epub ahead of print].

Correll, C.U., Olvet, D.M., Auther, A.M., Hauser, M., Kishimoto, T., Carrión, R.E., Snyder, S., Cornblat B.A 2014. The Bipolar Prodrome Symptom Interview and Scale-Prospective (BPSS-P): description and validation in a psychiatric sample and healthy controls. Bipolar Disorders 5,505-22

Trotman, H.D., Holtzman, C.W., Walker, E.F., Addington, J.M., Bearden, C.E., Cadenhead, K.S., Cannon, T.D., Cornblatt, B.A., Heinssen, R.K., Mathalon, D.H., Tsuang, M.T., Pekins, D.O., Seidman, L.J., Woods, S.W., McGlashan, T.H., 2014. Stress exposure and sensitivity in the clinical high-risk syndrome: initial findings in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). Schizophrenia Research 160, 104-9

Meyer, E.C., Carrión, R.E., Cornblatt, B.A., Addington, J., Cadenhead, K.S., Cannon, T.D., McGlashan, T.H., Perkins, D.O., Tsuang, M.T., Walker, E.F., Woods, S.W., Heinssen, R., Seidman, L.J., 2014. The relationship of neurocognition and negative symptoms to social role functioning over time in individuals at clinical high risk in the first phase of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 1452-61.

Woods, S.W., Walsh, B.C., Addington, J., Cadenhead, K.S., Cannon, T.D., Cornblatt, B.A., Heinssen, R., Perkins, D.O., Seidman, L.J., Tarbox, S.I., Tsuang, M.T., Walker, E.F., McGlashan, T.H., 2014. Current status specifiers for patients at clinical high risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 158, 69-75.

Carrión R.E., McLaughlin D., Goldberg T.E., Auther A.M., Olsen R.H., Olvet D.M., Correll C.U., Cornblatt B.A., 2013. Prediction of functional outcome in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 1133-42.

Olvet, D.M., Carrión, R.E., Auther, A.M., Cornblatt, B.A., 2013. Self-awareness of functional impairment in individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis. Early Intervention in Psychiatry (in press)

Cornblatt, B.A., Carrion, R.E., Addington, J., Seidman, L., Walker, E.F., Cannon, T.D., Cadenhead, K.S., McGlashan, T.H., Perkins, D.O., Tsuang, M.T., Woods, S.W., Heinssen, R., and Lencz, T., 2012. Risk factors for psychosis: impaired social and role functioning. Schizophrenia Bulletin (in press)

Auther, A.M., McLaughlin, D., Carrion, R.E., Nagachandran, P., Correll, C.U. and Cornblatt, B.A., 2012. Prospective study of cannabis use in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis: impact on conversion to psychosis and functional outcome. Psychological Medicine 12, 2485-2497.

Addington, J., Cadenhead, K.S., Cornblatt, B.A., Mathalon, D.H., McGlashan, T.H., Perkins, D.O., Seidman, L.J., Tsuang, M.T., Walker, E.F., Woods, S.W., Addington, J.A., and Cannon, T.D., 2012. North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS 2): Overview and recruitment. Schizophrenia Research (in press)

Bowie, C.R., McLaughlin, D., Carrion, R.E., Auther, A.M., and Cornblatt, B.A., 2012. Cognitive changes following antidepressant or antipsychotic treatment in adolescents at clinical risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 137, 110-117.

Addington, J., Cornblatt, B.A., Cadenhead, K.S., Cannon, T.D., McGlashan, T.H., Perkins, D.O., Seidman, L.J., Tsuang, M.T., Walker, E.F., Woods, S.W., and Heinssen, R., 2011. At clinical high risk for psychosis: outcome for nonconverters. American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 800-805.

Carrion, R.E., Goldberg, T.E., McLaughlin, D., Auther, A.M., Correll, C.U. and Cornblatt, B.A., 2011. Impact of neurocognition on social and role functioning in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 806-813.

Correll, C.U., Hauser, M., Auther, A.M. and Cornblatt, B.A., 2010. Research in people with psychosis risk syndrome: a review of the current evidence and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 51, 390-431.

Olvet, D.M., Stearns, W.H., McLaughlin, D., Auther, A.M., Correll, C.U. and Cornblatt, B.A., 2010. Comparing clinical and neurocognitive features of the schizophrenia prodrome to the bipolar prodrome. Schizophrenia Research 123, 59-63.

Seidman, L.J., Giuliano, A.J., Meyer, E.C., Addington, J., Cadenhead, K.S., Cannon, T.D., McGlashan, T.H., Perkins, D.O., Tsuang, M.T., Walker ,E.F., Woods, S.W., Bearden, C.E., Christensen, B.K., Hawkins, K., Heaton, R., Keefe, R.S., Heinssen, R. and Cornblatt, B.A., 2010. Neuropsychology of the prodrome to psychosis in the NAPLS consortium: relationship to family history and conversion to psychosis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67, 578-588.

Walker, E.F., Cornblatt, B.A., Addington, J., Cadenhead, K.S., Cannon, T.D., McGlashan, T.H., Perkins, D.O., Seidman, L.J., Tsuang, M.T., Woods, S.W., and Heinssen, R., 2009. The relation of antipsychotic and antidepressant medication with baseline symptoms and symptom progression: a naturalistic study of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Sample. Schizophrenia Research 115, 50-57.

Auther, A.M., Gillette, D., and Cornblatt, B.A., 2008. Expanding the boundaries of early intervention for psychosis:  Intervening during the prodrome. Psychiatric Annals. 38, 528-537.

Cannon, T.D., Cadenhead, K., Cornblatt, B., Woods, S.W., Addington, J., Walker, E., Seidman, L.J., Perkins, D., Tsuang, M., McGlashan, T. and Heinssen, R., 2008. Prediction of psychosis in youth at high clinical risk: a multisite longitudinal study in North America. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 28-37.

Cornblatt, B., Lencz T, Smith, C., and Auther, A., 2007. Treatment of the Schizophrenia Prodrome. M.T.Tsuang, W.S.Stone, and M.J.Lyons (Eds.), Recognition and prevention of major mental and substance use disorders. American Psychiatric Publishers, Washington, D.C., pp. 159-185.

Cornblatt, B.A., Lencz, T., Smith, C.W., Olsen, R., Auther, A.M., Nakayama, E., Lesser, M.L., Tai, J.Y., Shah, M.R., Foley, C.A., Kane, J.M., and Correll, C.U., 2007. Can antidepressants be used to treat the schizophrenia prodrome? Results of a prospective, naturalistic treatment study of adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 68, 546-557.

Cornblatt, B.A., Auther, A.M., Niendam, T., Smith, C.W., Zinberg, J., Bearden, C.E., and Cannon, T.D., 2007. Preliminary findings for two new measures of social and role functioning in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 688-702.

Brewer, W.J., Wood, S.J., Phillips, L.J., Francey, S.M., Pantelis, C., Yung, A.R., Cornblatt, B., and McGorry, P.D., 2006. Generalized and specific cognitive performance in clinical high-risk cohorts: a review highlighting potential vulnerability markers for psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 538-555.

Lencz, T., Smith, C.W., McLaughlin, D., Auther, A., Nakayama, E., Hovey, L. and Cornblatt, B.A., 2006. Generalized and specific neurocognitive deficits in prodromal schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 59, 863-871.

Seidman, L.J., Giuliano, A.J., Smith, C.W., Stone, W.S., Glatt, S.J., Meyer, E., Faraone, S.V., Tsuang, M.T., and Cornblatt, B., 2006. Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents and young adults at genetic risk for schizophrenia and affective psychoses: results from the Harvard and Hillside Adolescent High Risk Studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 507-524.

Correll, C.U., Lencz, T., Smith, C.W., Auther, A.M., Nakayama, E.Y., Hovey, L., Olsen, R., Shah, M., Foley, C., and Cornblatt, B.A., 2005. Prospective study of adolescents with subsyndromal psychosis: characteristics and outcome. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 15, 418-433.

Cornblatt, B.A., Lencz, T., Smith, C.W., Correll, C.U., Auther, A.M., and Nakayama, E., 2003. The schizophrenia prodrome revisited:  a neurodevelopmental perspective. Schizophrenia Bulletin 29, 633-651.

 

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